China’s macro leverage ratio, or total outstanding non-financial debt as a share of its nominal GDP, climbed by over $560 billion to reach 287.8 percent last year, more than twice the roughly 120 percent of its economic rival the U.S. The new data would put China ahead of Japan, previously the world’s most indebted country, whose sovereign debt accounted for about 220 percent of its GDP by the second quarter of 2023.

[Edit typo.]